2000 years before Christ, in India and Mesopotamia
Trade trips have been an important feature since the beginning of civilization. The port of Lothal was an important trading center between the civilization of the Indus valley and the Sumerian civilization.
600 BC and then
The first form of leisure tourism can be traced back to the Babylonian and Egyptian empires. A museum of historical antiquities was open to the public in Babylon. The Egyptians held many religious festivals that attracted devotees and many people who flocked to the cities to see famous works of art and buildings.
In India, as elsewhere, kings traveled to build an empire. Brahmins and ordinary people traveled for religious purposes. Thousands of brahmins and ordinary people crowded Sarnath and Sravasti to be greeted by the inscrutable smile of the Illuminated – the Buddha.
500 BC, the Greek civilization
Greek tourists went to sites of healing deities. The Greeks also enjoyed their religious feasts which became increasingly a pursuit of pleasure, and in particular of sport. Athens had become an important site for travelers visiting major attractions such as the Parthenon. Inns have been created in large cities and seaports to meet the needs of travelers. The courtiers were the main entertainment offered.
This era also saw the birth of travel writing. Herodotus was the first travel writer in the world. The guides also made their appearance in the fourth century covering destinations such as Athens, Sparta and Troy. During this period, the advertisements for signs that direct people to inns are also known.
The Roman Empire
Without foreign borders between England and Syria and with safe seas from piracy due to Roman patrols, the conditions favoring the journey had arrived. First-class roads combined with rest stops (forerunners of modern motels) have encouraged travel growth. The Romans traveled to Sicily, Greece, Rhodes, Troy and Egypt. From 300 AD even trips to the Holy Land became very popular. The Romans introduced their guides (itineraria), listing hotels with symbols to identify the quality.
The second houses were built by the rich near Rome, occupied mainly during the spring social season. The most fashionable resorts have been found around the Gulf of Naples. Naples attracted retirees and intellectuals, Cuma drew fashion while Baiae attracted tourists in decline, becoming famous for its turbulence, drunkenness and nocturnal singing.
Travel and tourism would never have reached a similar status until modern times.
In the Middle Ages
The journey has become difficult and dangerous when people have traveled for business or for a sense of obligation and duty.
Adventurers sought fame and fortune through travel. The Europeans sought to discover a sea route for India for commercial purposes and in this way discovered America and explored parts of Africa. Strolling players and minstrels made their living by performing as they traveled. Missionaries, saints, etc. They traveled to spread the sacred word.
Pleasure trips to India were introduced by the Mughals. The Mughal kings built luxurious palaces and charming gardens in places of natural and scenic beauty (for example Jehangir traveled to Kashmir attracted by its beauty.
The journey to build the empire and pilgrimage was a regular feature.
The Grand Tour
From the beginning of the seventeenth century, a new form of tourism was developed as a direct result of the Renaissance. Under the reign of Elizabeth 1, young people seeking positions in court were encouraged to travel to the continent to complete their education. Subsequently, it became customary for the education of the gentleman to be completed by a "Grand Tour" accompanied by a tutor and lasting three or more years. While apparently educational, the pleasure of seeking men traveled to enjoy the life and culture of Paris, Venice or Florence. At the end of the eighteenth century, the custom had been institutionalized in the nobility. The journey of gradual pleasure has shifted the educational journey. The advent of the Napoleonic wars has inhibited travel for about 30 years and led to the decline of the Grand Tour custom.
The development of the spa
The baths grew in popularity in the seventeenth century in Britain and soon after in the European continent with an increase in awareness of the therapeutic qualities of mineral water. Taking care in the spa he quickly acquired the nature of a status symbol. The resorts changed character when pleasure became the motivation for visits. They have become an important center of social life for high society.
In the nineteenth century they were gradually replaced by the seaside resort.
Sun, sand and sea locations
Sea water has become associated with health benefits. The first visitors then drank it and did not bathe in it. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, small fishing villages were built in England for visitors who drank and immersed themselves in sea water. With the overcrowding of the spas in the hinterland, the new seaside resorts have grown in popularity. The introduction of steamboat services in the 19th century introduced more resorts into the circuit. The seaside resort gradually became a social meeting point
Role of the industrial revolution in promoting travel to the West
The rapid urbanization due to industrialization has led to mass immigration into the cities. These people were lured on the road to escape their environment in places of natural beauty, often in the countryside they had come from a routine change from a stressful work physically and psychologically to a pleasant pace in the countryside.
Highlights of the journey in the nineteenth century
· The advent of the railway initially catalyzed business trips and subsequently leisure trips. The gradually special trains were hired to travel only for pleasure to their destinations.
· Packages organized by entrepreneurs such as Thomas Cook.
· European countries have granted themselves many business trips often in their colonies to buy raw materials and sell finished products.
· The invention of photography acted as a tool to improve status and promoted travel abroad.
· The formation of the first hotel chains; experimented by the railway companies that have created large hotels with a railway terminus.
· The seaside resorts have begun to develop different images with regard to hikers, the elite, for the game of chance.
· Other types of ski resort destinations, hill stations, mountaineering points etc.
· Technological development in steam ships has promoted travel between North America and Europe.
· The Suez Canal has opened sea routes to India and the Far East.
· The cult of the guide followed the development of photography.
Tourism in the 20th century
World War I gave direct experience of countries and aroused for the first time a sense of curiosity about international travel between the less wealthy sectors. The great extent of migration to the United States has involved many journeys across the Atlantic. Private motoring began to encourage domestic travel in Europe and the West. The seaside resort became an annual holiday destination for families in Britain and increased in popularity in other countries of the west. The hotels proliferated in these destinations.
The birth of air travel and after
The wars increased the interest in international travel. This interest was given the form of mass tourism by the aeronautical industry. The surplus of aircraft and the growth of private airlines have contributed to the expansion of air transport. The plane had become comfortable, faster and consistently cheaper for overseas travel. With the introduction of the Boeing 707 jet in 1958, the era of air travel for the masses had arrived. The beginning of the charter flights has strengthened the market of tourist packages and has led to the creation of organized mass tourism. The Boeing 747, a 400-seat boat, has drastically reduced travel costs. The seaside resorts of the Mediterranean, North Africa and the Caribbean were the initial hot spots of mass tourism.
A corresponding growth in the hotel sector has led to the creation of global chains. Tourism has also started to diversify when people started flocking to alternative destinations in the 70s. Nepal and India received a crowd of tourists attracted by the Hare Krishna movement and transcendental meditation. The beginning of the individual journey in a significant volume took place only in the 80's. Air travel has also led to continued growth in business travel, particularly with the emergence of multinationals.